by Paul Somerville
Somerville, Paul (1997). Engineering Characteristics of Near Fault Ground Motion. SMIP97
Seminar on Utilization of Strong-Motion Data, p. 9 - 28.
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This paper explains the effects of rupture directivity on near-fault ground motions,
describes an empirical model of these effects, provides guidelines for the specification of
response spectra and time histories to represent near-fault ground motions, and provides
guidelines for the selection of time histories.